History Question

Learning Goal: I’m working on a history multi-part question and need support to help me learn.

From the work will open on March 18noon- 19noon ,There will Be 4 Sorts of Questions on

There will be two Secondary Source Questions on the exams. You will be given two articles and be asked the questions below:

I.Secondary Source question, an op-ed (15pts)

(You have access to this article during the exam and would read it again to answer the questions below)

Ibrahim Al-Marashi, “The Coronavirus and Biosecurity in the Middle East,” Pacific Council, March 3, 2020 https://www.pacificcouncil.org/newsroom/coronavirus-and-biosecurity-middle-east

1.Give two examples of pre-modernity & two examples of modernity in this op-ed and explain how each are pre-modern and modern (10pts):

Pre-modern pilgrimage and COVID-19

While fears of COVID-19 spreading in tandem with China’s modern geopolitical reach have been expressed, perhaps exaggerated, the virus has travelled along the Middle East’s pre-modern network of sacred heritage.

Qom is the site of the shrine of Fatima, brother of Imam Ali al Ridha, a descendant of the prophet Muhammad. Lebanon’s first case of COVID-19 was from a pilgrim who visited the site, a 45-year-old woman who is in good health, according to the Lebanese ministry of health. (2pts)

The virus has not only affected Shia pilgrimage routes. In Israel, a group of South Koreans on a nine-day pilgrimage to the country’s religious heritage also tested positive for the infection, possibly spreading it to other pilgrims who jostle nearby at the sites. (2pts)

Mass media:

Certain Arab media outlets, before COVID-19 spread through the region, accused the United States and Israel of biological warfare against China. (2pts)

Digital Conspiracy Theories

The ultimate takeaway for the public in the Middle East to prepare for COVID-19 is the need to minimize hoaxes and conspiracy theories. Media literacy will become a matter of life and death in our post-modern, post-truth era. (2pts)

2.Explain which theoretical school Ibrahim Al-Marashi belong to? (5pts)

Kant, Liberal School:

The new coronavirus, however, is a global problem, which requires political solutions and transparency, based on international cooperation on the multinational, national, and local level in the Middle East, ensuring the free flow of scientific information among these actors to the public in this region. (5pts)

Example of a Secondary Source question, an on-the-ground media investigation (15pts)


II.Kareem Chehayeb, “’You have no one but us’: Lebanon’s political elite resurrected amid coronavirus crisis,” Middle East Eye, March 31, 2020 https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/coronavirus-lebanon-health-hezbollah-maligned-political-elite-influence

1.Give one example of pre-modernity & one example of modernity in this article and explain how each are pre-modern and modern (5pts):

Recent months have seen many Lebanese reject their traditional rulers as an economic crisis bites, and are not keen on political parties taking the de facto role of providing what they say ought to be state services.(2.5pts)

While the state has struggled to respond to the outbreak and reassure Lebanese, the sectarian-based political parties and ruling elite have stepped in – boosting their standing after months of seeing their reputation take a beating. (2.5pts)

2 Explain how does in the information in this media article align with the theories, schools, and frameworks that who have been exposed to in class. Which theory/framework best explains what is happening in Lebanon? (10pts)

Foucault and Machiavelli (5pts for each scholar)

“The state that we have in Lebanon is nothing but an archipelago of clientelistic networks,” Bassel Salloukh, professor of political science at the Lebanese American University, told MEE.

Salloukh says Lebanon’s ruling parties will “try to do everything they can… through their own party networks in order to maintain these kinds of clientelistic relations. “In many ways, the Covid-19 crisis has exposed the shell that is the Lebanese state,” he told MEE.

III. Primary Documents (30 pts) – You will look at two primary documents and will be asked to compare them. You will be asked the same questions below. Notice how you should compare the two documents in your answers. You will be marked on how you analyse the comparisons.

Example of a Primary Document question

This is an excerpt just to familiarize yourself. You will have access to the entire document in your readings


1 Marchione di Coppo Stefani, The Florentine Chronicle

….bodies were thrown into deep trenches every night. “The next morning, if there were many [bodies] in the trench, they covered them over with dirt. And then more bodies were put on top of them, with a little more dirt over those; they put layer on layer just like one puts layers of cheese in a lasagna.”

2 Ibn Khaldun on the Plague

“Civilization both in the East and the West was visited by a destructive plague which devastated nations and caused populations to vanish. It swallowed up many of the good things of civilization and wiped them out… Civilization decreased with the decrease of mankind. Cities and building were laid waste, roads and way signs were obliterated, settlements and mansions became empty, dynasties and tribes grew weak. The entire inhabited world changed.”

a. Compare who produced these documents? (5pts)


b. Compare the historical context of these passages? What was happening? (5pts)


c. Why are these documents significant for the history of pandemics? (20pts)

For this part, give me 5 strong sentences each worth four points. Think of what is modern and premodern in the documents.

IV. Image (30 pts): All the images you are responsible for will be including on a series of slides on Blackboard. ALWAYS check for the text underneath each Power Point slide. You will be given 1 image. You will be asked the questions below:


First Balkan War, Cholera, symbolized by a Grim Reaper with a scythe, killing soldiers on the Front, Frontpage of French newspaper Le Petit Journal, December 1st, 1912, Private Collection,


a. What is this image depicting? (5pts)

b. What is the historical context of this images? What was happening? (5pts)


c. Why is the image significant for the history of pandemics? (20pts)

For this part, give me 5 strong sentences each worth four points. Think of what is modern and premodern in the image



V. Question (10 pts)

watch this video: 

a. Why is this video significant for the history of pandemics? (10pts)

It was filmed in March 2020

Did I mention masks?

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