civilization of Western

Learning Goal: I’m working on a criminal justice test / quiz prep and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

As discussed in class, what was a major catalyst for why the small city-state of Rome grew rapidly into a Republic that controlled the majority of the Italian peninsula?

The victory over Greek forces led by Pyrrhus

Roman Legion victory over their neighbors in quick succession

The invasion and sacking of Rome by the Celts

The invasion and sacking of Rome by the Greek

What is “Modernization Theory”?

A theory only developed in the past 30 years that is used to explain the process of modernization within societies

The principle that the world is ever evolving into a more modern or better state

A subset of Communist theory that explains how societies develop

The only correct explanation of “Civilization” that emphasizes sequential development

The Cognitive Revolution resulted in which two major developments in the lives of human beings?

Tool development and biological evolution

Complex thoughts and large social networks

Large social networks and agriculture

Complex thoughts and irrigation networks

What would *NOT* be an example of “arete” to a Greek person living in the year 500 BCE?

An fruit tree that produces good tasting fruit and has a uniform, aesthetically pleasing shape

A dog who was loyal to its owner and bravely defended the owner’s home and livestock

A dog who was loyal to its owner and bravely defended the owner’s home and livestock

An adult male who was prone to emotional outbursts in public, behaved irrationally often, and retreated from conflict

The earliest Ancient Olympics (ca. 776 BCE) considered which of the following to be most important?

Philosophical debate

Religious ritual

Artistic production

Athletic competition

Fertility celebrations

What was the Helot War?

The war between Sparta and Athens

The legal mistreatment of enslaved people by Spartan young men once every Autumn

A rebellion by Athenian slaves (nicknamed “Helots”)

A conflict between Persia and the Greek poleis of Helot

As discussed in class, roughly what percentage of Athens was enslaved during the Classical period?

<1%

About one-third

Roughly half

>90%

What was the biggest outcome of the Peloponnesian War?

Persians re-take more of the Ionian Greek cities

Sparta becomes the dominant Greek polis for over a century

Athens begins state-financed armies

Alexander of Macedonia rises to power

What was the purpose of the Roman Senate throughout much of the Roman Republic era?

To exclusively manage the military

To handle all diplomatic relations

To provide expert advice to elected officials

It served no purpose other than for Patricians to enjoy easy jobs

Which of the following were traits of the three major Hellenistic Greek Kingdoms (Ptolemaic, Antigonid, Seleucid)? Three are correct.

Abandoned the militarism of Alexander in favor of true peace

Significant scientific developments (especially in the realm of geometry)

Did not place an emphasis on learning like Classical Greeks

Rejected documentation in favor of oral tradition

Emphasis on the cruelty of Gods

Elites generally did not adopt local languages of the people

Shared language amongst elites

There were a few reasons why, but what was the biggest reason why the Roman Republic had a complex democracy that elected not one, but *two* top-level administrators (Consuls)?

It was a tradition started by Romulus

Romans were simply obsessed with complexity

Romans feared the possibility of a single corrupt indiviudal siezing power

It was an effort by Plebians to sieze power from Patricians

What was the Roman value of Romanitas?

The idea that everyone should be strong, honest, and powerful

The exact opposite of the Greek idea of arete

A procedure ensuring that Dictators must step down after wartime

It wasn’t a virtue, but one of the 7 hills upon which Rome was built

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